What is important in the treatment of disease? Receiving drugs? Compliance with the doctor’s recommendations? The main thing – to know exactly what we treat! Do not make a mistake in diagnosis and prescription of a doctor helping analyzes.
Consultant – Therapist
Each of us at least once in their life gave certain analyzes, and perhaps even passed a comprehensive examination of the body. In the tests accounted for about 80% of the data required a specialist to properly diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment that will get rid of the disease.
Sensitive and specific
Assays are highly sensitive and highly specific: the first point to the fact that in the body there are any violations, the second – precisely determine what kind of insidious illness you overwhelmed. For example, abnormality in the analysis, reflecting liver function, indicates its failure as a whole. But what specifically – the analysis does not show. To do this, the doctor prescribes the study, for example, to identify markers of hepatitis viruses. If that is detected and diagnosed with “hepatitis”, it becomes clear what kind of virus caused this defeat – accordingly, any treatment program to choose for a particular case. That is why one study for an accurate diagnosis in most cases is not enough: you need to hold them in the complex.
We pass the tests correctly
There are certain restrictions and rules that are recommended at the time of analyzes. Otherwise, the error in the results can be interpreted as an excuse for setting the wrong diagnosis and, consequently, the appointment of unnecessary drugs and treatments. What should you know?
Complete blood count with extensive leukocyte formula, as well as biochemical analysis of blood is strictly necessary to take on an empty stomach, because the meal is not only an increase in blood glucose levels but also increase the level of white blood cells – and you will get false results that go beyond the norm. Blood biochemistry is recommended to take the sitting, and complete blood count – after a short rest, as physical activity, fatigue or stress can affect the results of ongoing research.
If you hand over the blood during menstruation, be sure to notify the attending physician – erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is increased in this period, and if the doctor will not know about your critical days, considers such an increase in a sign of inflammation or infection in the body.
If you are going to hand over a blood on hormones for a few days, give up alcohol, try not to smoke just before the surrender, not do sports. The analysis of hormones for rent on an empty stomach, research conducted on hormones on certain days of the menstrual cycle, otherwise, there will be errors.
For example, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones, as well as estradiol, prolactin, testosterone, cortisol, some thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine), it is recommended to take 5-7 minutes days of the menstrual cycle, progesterone and – not earlier than 20-24 days.
On the eve of passing any tests try not to eat heavy protein food, excess sugar (including soft drinks), animal fats and products made from white flour.
Complete blood count without leukocyte cannot take on an empty stomach. The same applies to test for antibodies to hepatitis, TORCH infections (rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus), as well as HIV infection.
Before you take a urine test, a thorough toilet of external genitals with running water – otherwise the sample particles can get a vaginal discharge and skew the results. In addition, use the “average” (not the very first) portion of urine.
If you have discovered a protein or sugar in the urine – do not panic, it is better to re-take the analysis a few days with all the rules. The fact that the protein can be detected in healthy individuals and in the case of chemical decomposition reactions (if the sample was in the jar long) if delivery of the analysis had to spend a long time standing up, and in the case of hypothermia. Regarding the sugar (glucose in the urine), it is detected by the abuse of carbohydrates, especially in the elderly. Also, glucose can be determined in the urine with a lot of stress.
What to take to be healthy?
You have a concern and you want to carry out a comprehensive examination of the body? You can do it, having attended as a condition of a particular organ or system, and their health in general.
First of all, to constantly monitor the state of his health, at least once a year hand over urinalysis, and complete blood count (if you turned 30, then hand over also and biochemical analyzes), come in chest X-rays and ultrasound breast and regularly hand over gynecological analyzes. This will help detect the disease at its earliest stages, and, therefore, time to begin treatment, not allowing her to harm your body.
The digestive system: Pass ultrasound study of the gastrointestinal tract. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe you FEGDS (or the people sounding). This procedure is unpleasant, but most accurately shows istinnnoe situation in your digestive tract. No other test or examination cannot determine with the certainty that there is actually happening. You may need to pass the biochemical analysis: the so-called liver function tests, tests for cholesterol and triglycerides, hepatitis markers, prothrombin index. Sometimes it is necessary to do X-ray examination.
Cardiovascular system: First of all, make an electrocardiogram and blood pressure monitored periodically. Sometimes it is necessary to conduct tests for cardiac markers, markers of inflammatory diseases, as well as to make coagulation (clotting study). Often need functional stress testing – to determine how the heart to cope with physical stress, is carried out such a test on a cycle ergometer (bicycle analog) or treadmill (treadmill).
The respiratory system required annually pass fluorography – this study shows changes in the lungs and can detect tuberculosis and other serious diseases at a very early stage. If you suffer from bronchial asthma, respiratory function tests should pass. If necessary a bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the respiratory tract organs.
Hormonal system: In order to determine or rule out thyroid disease, carried ultrasound of the body, shall TSH hormones, T3, free T4, and free. If you suspect diabetes pass analysis on blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and lipids. If there is a need to check the overall hormonal status, the luteinizing analysis performed, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, cortisol, thyroid hormone, and progesterone.
The immune system: In a study on the infection studied the blood for antibodies to E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosin, take a test for immunoglobulins IgM, IgG, IgA, and determined circulating immune complexes. In the case of allergy determine the level of total IgE and sensitization to allergens – a group and individually.
The main groups of research
General clinical studies are needed to determine the general health of the patient. The first thing that is done in cases of suspected disease – it is a common blood test, in which we can immediately determine if the body changes occur.
This analysis shows the number of red blood cells, the rate of sedimentation, the level of hemoglobin, color index, hematocrit, white blood cell count, leukocyte and the index formula, the level of platelets.
Urine tests can speak not only of inflammation of the genitourinary system but also diabetes, hormonal changes (such as the level of human chorionic gonadotropin in urine indicates the presence or absence of pregnancy).
An analysis to determine the type and Rh factor, and the availability and antigemolizinov antithesis antibodies in the blood are extremely important for pregnant women.
Fecal done in order to identify diseases of the gastrointestinal tract the presence of worms in the body; The list also included studies of sperm (semen), smears from the urethra, and scrapings from the skin and nails (to detect Demodex mite and other diseases).
Biochemical tests are needed to determine the functional state of practically all organs and body systems. The body is a few types of metabolism – protein, carbohydrate, lipid (fat), mineral; blood containing immune complexes, hormones. For biochemical analysis can determine the condition of the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, presence of acute and chronic inflammatory processes, autoimmune diseases, and so on. N. For example, liver function tests (bilirubin, transaminases, thymol turbidity test, fibrinogen, cholesterol and its fractions), renal sample (creatinine, urea, residual nitrogen) and m. n. most often demand hormonal assays determining thyroid function and reproductive system.
Serology is very diverse – it’s a variety of markers of infection. In this analysis the group are: the study on the presence of four types of hepatitis (A, B, C, D), measles, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, rubella, and syphilis, HIV, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, Giardia, and helminths, H. pylori and some other viral and bacterial infections. This specific analysis, pomogayu- conductive accurately establishes the diagnosis.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – one of the most significant studies on the presence of specific bacterial infections, this method examines nucleic acid (human DNA) and determines very accurately the presence of a microorganism. Thus, the mass diagnosed infectious agents – from mycoplasma and ureaplasma to chlamydia, gardnerellas, H. pylori, Streptococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is a highly sensitive and highly specific test. However, a positive polymerase chain reaction is not always the reason for the treatment of a particular infection, since many of their agents may be natural “inhabitants” of your body, does not cause any disease – and, therefore, do not require treatment.
Cytological studies are most often used in gynecology. This cell research for possible malignancy usually gynecologist takes a swab from the cervix or cervical canal and gives material for research.
Microbiologists – cal crops quite often used to determine the microorganism which was the causative agent of a disease. In a special environment shown biological material – it may be a vaginal swab, blood, saliva, urine or feces. In this environment, begin to grow and multiply microorganisms – and the presence of certain bacteria grown titer result considered to be the reason for the appointment of treatment. By the same principle determine the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics – not to prescribe a drug that will only bring harm to the body, and has no effect on the causative agent.
If you received the results of a study and found that they are different from the norm, do not rush to panic first analyzes show your doctor. The rules in each lab also, and they have not indicated for patients, and for skilled medical workers.
You can be examined independently, but it is better if the list of tests you appoint an expert – in order not to waste time and finances.